Office for Terrestrial Monitoring

We clarify the mechanisms of greenhouse gas emissions and uptake from terrestrial ecosystems, monitor the amount of GHG emissions, and promote monitoring of climate change impacts.


Research Projects



Automatically drawing vegetation classification maps using digital time-lapse cameras in alpine ecosystems
Okamoto, R., Ide, R., & Oguma, H.
Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation (2023)
Dissolved N2O concentrations in oil palm plantation drainage in a peat swamp of Malaysia
Nishina, K., Melling, L., Toyoda, S., Itoh, M., Terajima, K., Waili, J. W. B., Wong, G. X., Kiew, F., Aeries, E. B., Hirata, R., Takahashi, Y., & Onodera, T.
Science of the Total Environment, 872, 162062 (2023)
Sensitivity of biomass burning emissions estimates to land surface information
Saito, M., Shiraishi, T., Hirata, R., Niwa, Y., Saito, K., Steinbacher, M., Worthy, D., & Matsunaga, T.
Biogeosciences, 19, 2059–2078 (2022)
Constraining models for methane oxidation based on long-term continuous chamber measurements in a temperate forest soil
Ueyama, M., Fujimoto, A., Ito, A., Takahashi, Y., & Ide, R.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 310, 108654 (2021)
Estimation of carbon dioxide emissions from the megafires of Australia in 2019-2020
Shiraishi, T., & Hirata, R.
Scientific Reports, 11: 8267 (2021)
Emissions from the Oil and Gas Sectors, Coal Mining and Ruminant Farming Drive Methane Growth over the Past Three Decades
Chandra, N., Patra, P. K., Bisht, J. S. H., Ito, A., Umezawa, T., Saigusa, N., Morimoto, S., Aoki, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Fujita, R., Takigawa, M., Watanabe, S., Saitoh, N., & Canadell, J. G.
J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 2021-015 (2021)
The impact of interventions in the global land and agri-food sectors on Nature’s Contributions to People and the UN Sustainable Development Goals
McElwee, P., Calvin, K., Campbell, D., Cherubini, F., Grassi, G., Korotkov, V., Hoang, A. L., Lwasa, S., Nkem, J., Nkonya, E., Saigusa, N., Soussana, J.-F., Taboada, M. A., Manning, F., Nampanzira, D. & Smith, P.
Global Change Biology 2020;00:1-31 (2020)
Historical and future anthropogenic warming effects on droughts, fires and fire emissions of CO2 and PM2.5 in equatorial Asia when 2015-like El Nino events occur
Shiogama, H., Hirata, R., Hasegawa, T., Fujimori, S., Ishizaki, N., Chatani, S., Watanabe, M., Mitchell, D. & Lo Y. T. E.
Earth System Dynamics 11, 435-445 (2020)
How do land use practices affect methane emissions from tropical peat ecosystems?
Wonga, G. X., Hirata, R., Hirano, T., Kiewa, F., Aeries, E. B., Musin, K. K., Waili, J. W., Lo, K. S. & Melling, L.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 282-283 (2020)
Which practices co-deliver food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and combat land degradation and desertification?
Smith, P., Calvin, K., Nkem, J., Campbell, G., Cherubini, F., Grassi, G., Korotkov, V., Le Hoang, A., Lwasa, S., McElwee, P., Nkonya, E., Saigusa, N., Soussana, J.-F., Taboada, M. A., Manning, F. C., Nampanzira, D., Arias-Navarro, C., Vizzarri, M., House, J., Roe, S., Cowie, A., Rounsevell, M. & Arneth, A.
Global Change Biology 2019;00:1-44 (2019)
Role of wetlands in mitigating the trade-off between crop production and water quality in agricultural landscapes
Matsuzaki, S. S., Kohzu, A., Kadoya, T., Watanabe, M., Osawa, T., Fukaya, K., Komatsu, K., Kondo, N., Yamaguchi, H., Ando, H., Shimotori, K., Nakagawa, M., Kizuka, T., Yoshioka, A., Sasai, T., Saigusa, N., Matsushita, B. & Takamura, N.
Ecosphere 10(11): e02918 (2019)
Enhanced understory carbon flux components and robustness of net CO2 exchange after thinning in a larch forest in central Japan
Teramoto, M., Liang, N., Takahashi, Y., Zeng, J., Saigusa, N., Ide, R. & Zhao X.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 274, 106-117 (2019)
Methane budget of East Asia, 1990-2015: A bottom-up evaluation
Ito, A., Tohjima, Y., Saito, T., Umezawa, T., Hajima, T., Hirata, R., Saito, M. & Terao, Y.
Science of the Total Environment 676, 40-52 (2019)
Exploring Gaps between Bottom-Up and Top-Down Emission Estimates Based on Uncertainties in Multiple Emission Inventories: A Case Study on CH4 Emissions in China
Cheewaphongphan, P., Chatani, S. & Saigusa, N.
Sustainability 11, 2054 (2019)
Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at a Tropical Peat Forest in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo
Tang, A. C. I., Stoy, P. C., Hirata, R., Musin, K. K., Aeries, E. B., Wenceslaus,J. & Melling, L.
Geophys. Res. Lett. 45, 4390-4399 (2018)
Land use change and El Nino-Southern Oscillation drive decadal carbon balance shifts in Southeast Asia
Kondo, M., Ichii, K., Patra, P. K., Canadell, J. G., Poulter, B., Sitch, S., Calle, L., Liu, Y. Y., van Dijk, A. I. J. M., Saeki, T., Saigusa, N., Friedlingstein, P., Arneth, A., Harper, A., Jain, A. K., Kato, E., Koven, C., Li, F., Pugh, T. A. M., Zaehle, S., Wiltshire, A., Chevallier, F., Maki, T., Nakamura, T., Niwa, Y. & Rodenbeck, C.
Nature Communications 9, 1154 (2018)
Soil carbon dioxide emissions due to oxidative peat decomposition in an oil palm plantation on tropical peat
Ishikura, K., Hirano, T., Okimoto, Y., Hirata, R., Kiewa, F., Melling, L., Aeries, E. B., Lo, K. S., Musin, K. K., Waili, J. W., Wong, G. X. & Ishii, Y.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 254, 202-212 (2018)
CO2 Balance of a Secondary Tropical Peat Swamp Forest in Sarawak, Malaysia
Kiew, F., Hirata, R., Hirano, T., Wong, G. X., Aeries, E. B., Musin, K. K., Waili, J. E., Lo, K. S., Shimizu, M. & Melling, L.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 248, 494-501 (2018)
Long-term chamber measurements reveal strong impacts of soil temperature on seasonal and inter-annual variation in understory CO2 fluxes in a Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi Sarg.) forest
Teramoto, M., Liang, N., Zeng, J., Saigusa, N. & Takahashi, Y.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 247, 194-206 (2017)
A 4D-Var inversion system based on the icosahedral grid model (NICAM-TM 4D-Var v1.0) - Part 2: Optimization scheme and identical twin experiment of atmospheric CO2 inversion
Niwa, Y., Fujii, Y., Sawa, Y., Iida, Y., Ito, A., Satoh, M., Imasu, R., Tsuboi, K., Matsueda, H. & Saigusa, N.
Geosci. Model Dev. 10, 2201-2219 (2017)
A 4D-Var inversion system based on the icosahedral grid model (NICAM-TM 4D-Var v1.0) - Part 1: Offline forward and adjoint transport models
Niwa, Y., Tomita, H., Satoh, M., Imasu, R., Sawa, Y., Tsuboi, K., Matsueda, H., Machida, T., Sasakawa, M., Belan, B. & Saigusa, N.
Geoscientific Model Development 10, 1157-1174 (2017)
Development of a masking device to exclude contaminated reflection during tower-based measurements of spectral reflectance from a vegetation canopy
Ide, R., Hirose, Y., Oguma, H. & Saigusa, N.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 223, 141-150 (2016)
Factors contributing to soil nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates of forest soils in the Japanese archipelago
Urakawa, R., Ohte, N., Shibata, H., Isobe, K., Tateno, R., Oda, T., Hishi, T., Fukushima, K., Inagaki, Y., Hirai, K., Oyanagi, N., Nakata, M., Toda, H., Kenta, T., Kuroiwa, M., Watanabe, T., Fukuzawa, K., Tokuchi, N., Ugawa, S., Enoki, T., Nakanishi, A., Saigusa, N., Yamao, Y. & Kotani, A.
Forest Ecology and Management 361, 382-396 (2016)